Download full-text PDF. Content voltage using an ADC and a PIC microcontroller. Key words: Underground Power Cable; Fault Detection;. KEYWORDS- Underground cable, fault location, fault detection, location When two conductors of multi core cable come in electrical contact with one which the programmed microcontroller would show an equivalent on LCD in kilometers. L. +RB2 detecting underground cables and errors therein using the . is more advantageous than microcontroller based underground fault detection. c).
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This paper proposes fault location model for underground power cable using microcontroller. The aim of this project is to determine the. Underground Wire Fault Detector Project Report - Free download as PDF File . pdf), with the microcontroller that is used to make the necessary calculations. V. Cable faults are damage to cables which affects the resistance in the cable. and which phase is displayed on a 16X2 LCD interfaced with the microcontroller. redelocidi.cf
If the length of the cable is increase, the value of the resistance will also increase.
Underground Cable Fault Detection Using Arduino Microcontroller
If any deviation occurs in the value of resistance, we will call that is fault point and finding that place through Arduino technology. The standard of distance kilometer from the base station is represented by the fault point. This value displayed by display unit LCD. Whenever a fault occurs in a cable the buzzer produces the alarm to alert and to take an immediate action by field workers.
Online method for underground cable is less than overhead lines. The offline Methods are as follows, a Tracer method In this method fault point in the cable lines is detected by walking on ground. The fault point is indicated from audible signal or electromagnetic signal. It is used to point out fault location very accurately. Example: Fig.
The clock speed is 16 MHz, which translates to executing about , lines of C source code per second. The analog signal is a continuous sinusoidal waveform that cannot be read by Arduino so here ADC is used Fig. In this circuit 4diodes are used to form bridge rectifier which delivers pulsating dc voltage and then fed to capacitor filter the output voltage from rectifier is fed to filter to eliminate any AC components present even after rectification.
The filtered DC voltage will be given to regulator to produce 12v constant DC voltage. Liquid crystal display are interfacing to microcontroller LCDs are available to display arbitrary images as in a general-purpose computer display or fixed images with low information content, which can be displayed or hidden, such as preset words, digits, and 7- segment displays as in a digital clock.
They use the same basic technology, except that arbitrary images are made up of a large number of small pixels, while other displays have larger elements. In this paper GSM is also used when user is at long distance. Where the fault is occurs this information send in the form of message via GSM. Lower tree trimming cost. Safe and secure to use. Highly reliable and efficient to use. Useful for all type of underground cable.
Public safety is improved. The set of resistors denote the cable part along with switches.
The change in current is sensed by this part by sensing the voltage drop. Controlling part uses the analog to digital ADC to converter the input current sensing signal from the current generating circuit to the voltage drop into digital signal and supply the Microcontroller.
The microcontroller makes necessary calculations regarding the distance of the fault. The driver is ran by the microcontroller and controls the switching of the relays for proper connection of the cable at each phase.
Display part consists of the LCD display interfaced to the microcontroller and it shows the status of the cable of each phase and the fault distance of the cable at the particular phase, in case of any fault and GSM used to send message to the base station.
Buzzer is used to alerts the field workers. Provides precise accuracy in determining the location of fault.
Consumes low power in Nano watts. Compact size, Easy to handle. Serial on board programming.
No external programming voltage needed. Less maintenance cost. The investigation is limited to the because there no conducting complete loop for current United States. Patents The value of Rx resistance is proportional to Lx length, so Of the 25 related patents found, 5,, number is the that the fault point can be calculated: most applicable to this project.
The method assumes that there is only one error, low C. Technical Journals resistance to the insulation resistance of the cable without Pantaloons proposes that a Gaussian estimator, of damage and cable conductors have a resistance for uniform maximum frequency, of maximum likelihood can length units. The estimator can be used to locate a discontinuity in a cable. The cable was stimulated with a pulse of short duration.
The stimulus and the first reflection were sampled and the first spectral line F determined by the fast Fourier transform FFT was sent to the estimation algorithm. The propagation velocity of the Fig. A simplified analytical model described by A III.
UNDERGROUND WIRE FAULT DETECTOR
Block Diagram of the system charged line RC based on finding the approximate poles of the transfer function. This transfer model aims to make it easier to implement a computer-aided analysis; However, it is not as accurate as other published techniques. Schutt-Aine reported a transient propagation analysis through non-uniform structures and uniform lines.
The analysis uses a formulation of dispersion parameters in the time domain to establish closed form algorithms for current and voltage variables in the line.
The technique was applied to micro-terminal, uniforms and tapered lines. A digital signal processing algorithm DSP was developed to estimate the location of a fault using a line parameter estimation technique. Van Biesen, This process was applied to TDR data sampled from a known non-defective cable for line parameter calibration and compared to a faulted line to locate the discontinuity.
The technique requires knowledge of propagation velocity for accuracy. It is reported that the Fig. Block diagram description sampler. Murray Bridge loop Resistor is a passive component used to control the current Murray Bridge loop is a bridge circuit used for localization in a circuit.
Its resistor is given by the ratio of the voltage of underground or submarine cable faults.
ARDUINO BASED UNDERGROUND TRANSMISSION CABLE FAULT LOCATION SYSTEM
Therefore, a particular resistor value, for a fixed voltage, limits the current there through. They are ubiquitous in One end of the defective wire is connected by a pair of electronic circuits.
Also, a zero detector is connected. The other end of the cable is short-circuited. The different value of the resistors is used to limit the The bridge is balanced by modifying the RB1 and RB2 current or the desired voltage drop depending on the values.
It is sometimes called to a 5V power supply, a voltage drop of 2. This can be conditioning. There are many types of power supply.
Underground Cable Fault Detection Using Arduino Microcontroller
Most achieved by providing a connected in series with the are designed to convert the high voltage power supply to a LED resistor. A power supply can be decomposed into a series Resistors can be fixed or variable. Low power resistors are of blocks, each of which performs a specific function. There are nonlinear resistors whose resistor changes with temperature or light. These power supplies can be designed by a simple circuit, The negative temperature coefficient NTC , the positive composed of a bridge rectifier diodes Here we used temperature coefficient PTC and the light dependent connected in a bridge assembly called Diode bridge , an resistor LDR are some of these resistors.
LED and transformer. The purpose of each component in the power supply design circuit shown in the diagram 2 LED taken using SCH express is described below: Power is the Light emitting diodes LEDs are sources of semiconductor first and most important part of our project. For our project, light. They operate at low mA voltage and power..
Keep in mind the following points: You should take the mirror print out. Select the output in black both from the PCB design software and printer driver settings. Make sure that the printout is made on the glossy side of the paper. STEP 2: Cutting the copper plate for the circuit board Cut the copper board according to the size of layout using a hacksaw or a cutter. Next, rub the copper side of PCB using steel wool or abrasive spongy scrubs.
This removes the top oxide layer of copper as well as the photo resists layer. Sanded surfaces also allows the image from the paper to stick better. STEP 3: Transferring the PCB print onto the copper plate Method 1 Iron on glossy paper method for complex circuits : Transfer the printed image taken from a laser printer from the photo paper to the board. Make sure to flip top layer horizontally.
Put the copper surface of the board on the printed layout. Ensure that the board is aligned correctly along the borders of the printed layout. And use tape to hold the board and the printed paper in the correct position.
Method 2 Circuit by hand on PCB for simple and small circuits : Taking the circuit as reference, draw a basic sketch on copper plate with pencil and then by using a permanent black marker.STEP 2: Cutting the copper plate for the circuit board Cut the copper board according to the size of layout using a hacksaw or a cutter.
Pragati D. The volt amplifier of series with the LEDs. Sometimes network Problems for rural areas may happen. Sanjana Singh is pursuing B. Gazzana, Arturo S. Muirhead,and J. Oxford: Clarendon, , pp.
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