Editorial Reviews. From the Back Cover. This book introduces the key technologies that have Web Technologies: A Computer Science Perspective - site edition by Jeffrey C. Jackson. download a site site eBooks site Unlimited Prime Reading Best Sellers & More site Book Deals Free Reading Apps site. Web Technologies: A Computer Science Perspective. Front Cover. Jackson. Pearson Education, - pages Jeffrey C. Jackson Snippet view - Jeffrey C. Jackson. Prentice Hall, - Computers - pages. 3 Reviews. Web Technologies: A Computer Science Perspective is ideal for courses in.
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This is the eBook of the printed book and may not include any media, Web Technologies: A Computer Science Perspective is ideal for courses in Jeff Jackson began his computing career as a software engineer in Book Name: Web Technologies Author: Jeffrey C. Jackson ISBN Year: Pages: Language: English File size: MB File format. Similar Free eBooks Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology Jackson, Jeffrey C. Web technologies: a computer science perspective / Jeffr.
E-books align with what I call the student surveillance economy. The student surveillance economy is supported by a robust apparatus of techniques, practices, and technologies for student monitoring. Several items of U. First, the U. Schools are thus framed as competitors for student retention. Consistently underperforming schools may result in complete staff replacement or private restructuring [ 38 ].
The legislation was enacted during of time of fiscal challenges for states, exacerbating pressures on schools to achieve adequate yearly progress Sunderman, et al. Adaptive e-books might be marketed to schools as a way to capture student performance data, retain students, and reduce the risk of restructuring. IDEIA guarantees public school services to all children with disabilities [ 40 ].
With parental consent, children may be tested for disabilities, and those with disabilities are given individualized education programs, or IEPs [ 41 ]. Evaluation, monitoring, and intervention involving children with IEPs requires significant data collection [ 42 ]. Classroom teachers must therefore often accommodate IEP students in regular classrooms by differentiating instruction — by providing individualized instruction to multiple students simultaneously.
This poses challenges, but these challenges could be alleviated using distributed interactive technologies. All this must occur in a fiscally insecure environment.
Mobile, adaptive, data-based technologies like interactive e-books may seem like an attractive solution to teachers given their circumstances.
Schools and teachers are actively encouraged by the U. Highly granular reading data from interactive e-book devices could be linked to these databases. Multiple data-gathering technologies are already in place in schools to support a student surveillance economy.
The questions conform to those on statewide standardized tests. Accelerated Reader AR is another type of monitoring technique also tied to software. AR is a level-reading program often used in elementary schools. Students gradually acquire points based on the number of tests taken, the number of points each book test is worth, and the number of questions they answer correctly Renaissance Learning, AR was designed as a reading incentive tool, but the data from the quizzes can also potentially tell teachers what students are reading, how well they understand it, and whether they are reading at a desired level.
This cultural practice meshes well with e-book features. Cyberschools and online learning in general generate a large amount of student data. BlackBoard and Edmodo, for instance, which are online course management platforms, record how often students access the course site, what files they view and download, how long they view presentations, when they post discussions, what they post, and when they complete assignments.
The massively open nature of these courses means that a massive amount of data is generated. Using the data generated from quizzes, designers can pinpoint where and why course material was poorly explained or misunderstood. Finally, there are basic surveillance techniques in schools such as ID badges, mirrors, and cameras.
It is evident from these examples that educational institutions already support student surveillance through a range of techniques and technologies. The use of surveillance is promoted and even required by national legislation. Cybernetic e-books align with current technological, legislative, and economic trends. Given the current educational environment, e-books with data capturing capabilities could be adopted by schools in a variety of ways.
Teachers who assign e-books to their classes could capture and analyze this data both in the aggregate and for individual students in order to better tailor lessons. This data is collected automatically and can be viewed by teachers anytime. One potential feature not yet found in e-books is embedded comprehension quizzes.
Like AR, e-books could periodically test student comprehension about the content of the e-book in order to monitor student progress and provide feedback to the teacher. Tutoring technology could accompany the text. Students who can afford to do so might download supplemental instructional materials, like CliffsNotes, historical background information, expert commentary, or images.
Students might take warm-up quizzes or review quizzes each time they open up the book. The annotation and highlighting features of e-books could facilitate group learning.
Students could potentially post questions to classmates about book content. These features may seem to reduce the challenges of differentiated instruction on teachers. Another feature of e-books that has to some extent become possible and would be extremely attractive to schools is the capability of modifying or individualizing the text based on the student.
Texts could modify in terms of vocabulary, structure, length, or language based on student learning needs. E-books have read-aloud features for sight-impaired students, or Braille keyboards for hearing-impaired students.
Similarly, more efficient, mechanized instruction becomes possible with interactive e-books, and they enable teachers both to monitor students and to reduce demands for inclusion-based, individualized instruction. E-books can modify themselves and adapt to performance based on student feedback. It seems likely that e-book technologies will develop in ways such as these that make them attractive to the education market.
Whether or not these particular features develop to suit the student surveillance economy, it seems likely that e-book publishers and device manufacturers will continue to use schools and libraries as marketing test beds and will continue to market to public, non-profit sectors Buschman, ; Stevenson, Open access counter-imaginaries Accounts of e-books that focus exclusively on commercial products such as the site or Nook have a limited perspective on what e-books are or might be.
Current focus on commercial devices suggests that corporate marketing strategies have been successful at branding the e-book and defining what it is, what is imaginable, and what kind of e-books are possible.
Despite the commercialization of e-books and their cybernetic potentialities that align with commercial interests, several movements have resisted commercial e-book trends. For example, Project Gutenberg e-book texts are still freely available for download. The commodity form of e-book that has become popular today is a historical product that was strategically constructed by the publishing industry.
While early e-book files circulated via disks and CDs were bought and sold, the first online e-books were non-commercial. Project Gutenberg e-texts were created by collectives of volunteers who cared about the free and equitable dissemination of literature. The first works that were published online in e-book form were works in the public domain, and they thus generated no royalties for their copying and distribution.
The first e-book publishers shared a philosophy with other early web users of that time, one which emphasized the public good, openness, collaboration, and the value of communally-shared resources. The philosophy of the digital commons has also been used by counter-copyright movements, anti-DRM activists, and the open access publishing movement.
Drawing from the Free Software Movement begun by Richard Stallman in the s in response to the closure of software source code, the Creative Commons movement was started by Lawrence Lessig in in response to perceived hyper-restrictive copyright regime Lessig, Creative Commons licenses attempt to actively broaden potential uses of digital works. Several national institutions are working to preserve and make accessible digital works such as e-books, including HathiTrust, the Digital Public Library of America, Library of Congress, and Internet Archive.
Several types of e-books are not neatly slotted as either commercial or non-commercial. Google Books, for example, makes searchable over 30 million scanned books out of the million or so in the world Darnton, ; Jackson, , and some of the books are freely viewable.
It is not yet clear how this e-book form benefits authors, vendors, and publishers.
Web technology jeffrey c jackson pdf
While Google Books does not include advertisements, non-accessible books display a link for easy download. There are also e-books that are published and freely-available after the books have a two-year commercial print run, or free e-books that are printed out and published commercially as print books.
Conclusion Commercial e-books are a product of history that resulted from concerted efforts by the publishing industry to control products and customers. The book publishing industry sought to find a way to reduce production and shipping costs, avoid overproduction, reduce storage costs, increase revenue, maintain scarcity, and lower risk.
From its inception in the colonies, the U. Copyright was designed to benefit publishers and printers, not authors, though authors also profited. The rise of personal computing, the rapid adoption of digital network infrastructure by the U.
The industry sought to utilize the commercialized digital infrastructure to distribute their products cheaply at near-zero marginal cost and without losing control of the product post-sale. They nearly achieved this objective through both technological and legal means, first by adopting DRM coding to create a secure end-to-end trusted system, and also by lobbying Congress to criminalize attempts by consumers or competitors who might circumvent the security to create and distribute unlicensed digital copies.
Authors received fewer royalties from individual e-book sales, but their opportunities for self-publishing increased, and alternative incentive systems have begun to develop.
Besides establishing publisher control over their uses, e-books also created a cybernetic loop, but not in the sense Wiener envisioned. The interactive nature of e-books created new commercial opportunities for publishers and distributors to shape consumer behavior through data collection techniques, advertising, and market research.
The book publishing industry did not establish a monopoly on e-book control. Publishers depended on online vendors to distribute and deliver their e-book products to consumers.
Publishers and vendors battled over pricing, and publishers were ultimately forced to concede lower prices and less control over distribution. Authors generally fared less well with e-book royalties compared to traditional book royalties due to lower sale prices, but digital technologies have also destabilized author-publisher relations.
Paris Under Water: How the City of Light Survived the Great Flood of 1910 (Paperback)
The technologies inherent in e-books mean that lines between books, advertisements, and marketing will continue to blur. E-books will likely continue to intersect with the education industry, whose interest in the student surveillance economy calls for control and prediction — exactly what that the data-capturing potential of e-books offers.
As a result of the largely proprietary, closed nature of commercial e-books, the files may continue to disappear and become irretrievable. Commercial e-publishing in its current form threatens the preservation and archiving of cultural heritage. Striphas [ 45 ] states that DRM and intellectual property law troubles the notion of ownership of digital objects, suggesting a refeudalization of digital cultural goods.
Digital libraries and archives have recognized these threats and have begun to focus on e-book preservation.
DRM technologies will likely become more fine-tuned and less permeable to decryption. Still, calling the current moment dark ages obscures the fact that, unlike the medieval dark ages, media production technologies such as the printing press and the Web are available now. Unlike then, these technologies can be used to counterbalance commercial imperatives. At the margins of society exist counter-commercial movements that seek to revise or otherwise develop alternative solutions to the restrictions presented by copyright and DRM.
These movements include digital preservation initiatives, libraries, archives, political movements, and funding campaigns. The programming and trajectories of commercial e-books suggest that central administration of e-books has shifted away from commercial book publishers and toward commercial distributors. Vendors, and to some extent publishers, will continue to control commercial e-book uses and monitor readers.
Commercial e-books are attractive for industries such as education that also seek techniques of control and prediction. In opposition to commercial e-book models, an array of opportunities for counteraction still seems possible, such as open-access publishing and establishing personal data rights. Personal data rights would allow consumers to control how their data is used.
The privacy of personal data could come to resemble that of medical records. Rather than have their reading habits monitored, consumers and students using e-books could return cybernetic commodities from private to public governance. Complex histories and materialities combined to form current e-book artifacts.
E-books re-cast perennial questions regarding authorship and texts. The history of the book is replete with questions of authorship, and with their adaptive, interactive features, e-books continue to challenge these understandings. E-books also raise questions about the relationships of power between text and reader. Given the complex politics and histories of e-books, readers might consider how a particular media type — e-books — potentially shapes intellectual life and whether current trajectories are desirable.
About the author Michael M. Widdersheim is a Ph. E-mail: mmw84 [at] pitt [dot] edu 1. Williams, , p. Golumbia, , p. Flusser, , p. Manley and Holley, , p. Barnes, , p. American Standards Association, 17 June , p.
Web Technologies - A Computer Science Perspective - J. Jackson
Vaidhyanathan, , p. Vaidhyanathan, , pp. Rice, , p. Rose, , pp. Striphas, , p. Litman, , p. Cohen, et al. National Science Foundation, ; Greenstein, , p. Harris and Gerich, ; Jamison, et al. Greenstein, , p. MacFadyen, , p. Widdersheim, , p. References Ron Adner and William Vincent, American Standards Association. American standard code for information interchange. New York: American Standards Association. Susan B.
Barnes, James Boyle, The public domain: Enclosing the commons of the mind. New Haven, Conn. John Buschman, Libraries, classrooms, and the interests of democracy: Marking the limits of neoliberalism. Lanham, Md. Vannevar Bush, Paul Carr, William Charvat, The profession of authorship in America, — New York: Columbia University Press. Julie E. Okediji, and Maureen A. Copyright in a global information economy.
Third edition. New York: Aspen Publishers. Paul Collins, Robert Darnton, Arne Duncan, Edmentum, n. Jon Fingas, Into the universe of technical images. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. David Golumbia, The cultural logic of computation. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. Shane Greenstein, Susan R.
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Harris and Elise Gerich, Michael Hart, Nancy K. Herther, Harold A. Innis, The bias of communication. Second edition. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Empire and communications.
Toronto: Dundurn Press. Joab Jackson, Aaron Kreider, Terry Kuny, Lawrence Lessig, Jessica D. Litman, Heather MacFadyen, Laura Manley and Robert P.
Holley, National Science Foundation, Renaissance Learning, Grantland S. Rice, The transformation of authorship in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Mark Rose, Authors and owners: The invention of copyright. Cambridge, Mass. Bill Rosenblatt, Digital rights management: Business and technology.
Pamela Samuelson, Mark Stefik, Internet dreams: Archetypes, myths, and metaphors. Siobhan Stevenson, Ted Striphas, Suit Staff, Gail L. Sunderman, James S. Kim, and Gary Orfield, NCLB meets school realities: Lessons from the field.
Thousand Oaks, Calif. Jeffrey A. Trachtenberg, Siva Vaidhyanathan, Copyrights and copywrongs: The rise of intellectual property and how it threatens creativity. Victoria and Albert Museum, Michael M. Widdersheim, Norbert Wiener, The human use of human beings: Cybernetics and society. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Raymond Williams, Television: Technology and cultural form.
This newfound ability to work together proved a crucial rehearsal for an even graver crisis four years later, when France was plunged into World War I. On the occasion of the hundredth anniversary of the flood, Jeffrey H. Jackson captures here for the first time the drama and ultimate victory of man over nature.
About the Author Jeffrey H. He is the author of Paris Under Water. He lives in Memphis, Tennessee. Evenhanded, at once pragmatic and inspiring. With the national debate roaring on whether post-Katrina New Orleans should be rebuilt, Paris Under Wateroffers the definitive answer of yes.
A truly first-rate book. Going far beyond the boundaries of environmental or urban history, it draws on an exceptionally wide array of sources to offer the reader a meticulous, yet rich and personal, reconstruction of what the great flood felt like to contemporaries, what it revealed about social tensions and solidarities, and what it signified on a broader historical scale.
Jackson has succeeded masterfully in telling a fascinating story in a way that any reader will find utterly irresistible, while applying insightful and erudite scholarly analysis in a way that sheds light on a great city's social, economic, and cultural life.
A tour de force of scholarship and brilliantly creative craftsmanship. Jackson tells us about a little-known flood of a well-known city, Paris. He weaves seamlessly together the political and cultural significance of the flood, all while engaging the reader with stories about what the flood meant for everyday life.
A fine achievement. The Great Paris Flood of , which paralyzed the world's most modern city and caused over a billion euros by today's standards worth of damage, provides a fascinating study of physical and social devastation and human survival. Jackson blends the vivid details of the flood--exploding sewer covers, disintegrating streets--with the wider historical context, from the Commune of to World War I, and the psychology of disaster.The book is updated for the upcoming Python 3.
Each chapter starts with a complete code sample, picks it apart and explains the pieces, and then puts it all back together in a summary at the end. Where would you class a book on the impact of air pollution on public health in 1. IDEIA guarantees public school services to all children with disabilities [ 40 ]. These movements include digital preservation initiatives, libraries, archives, political movements, and funding campaigns.
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